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Metformin reappears new role? It may prevent dementia

Time:2020-10-10 16:16:07  Source:  Author:


 According to the official account of WeChat's public view, recently, the American Diabetes Association's diabetes diagnosis and treatment published an Australian study. The above study found that type 2 diabetic patients taking metformin had a slower cognitive function and a lower risk of dementia.

The original study was conducted in 1037 people aged 70-90 without dementia, 123 of whom had type 2 diabetes and 67 received metformin
In general, people with type 2 diabetes tend to have a higher risk of dementia - type 2 diabetes can lead to long-term health complications, including cognitive decline.
However, six years later, the statistics showed that the cognitive function of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who did not take metformin was significantly faster, and the risk of new onset dementia was 5 times higher than that of metformin users.
At the same time, it should be noted that compared with the non-diabetic population, there was no significant difference in the rate of cognitive decline in patients with type 2 diabetes who took metformin within 6 years.
Professor Katherine Samaras, endocrinologist at St. Vincent's Hospital in Sydney, the lead author of the study, said: "metformin is safe and widely used, and these data suggest its new potential. For patients with type 2 diabetes, metformin may bring cognitive health benefits beyond glucose control. More broadly, for people at high risk of dementia and their families, it could change their lives. "
Based on the preliminary findings of this study, the team is planning to conduct a large randomized controlled trial of metformin in high-risk people with dementia, and to assess changes in cognitive function within three years.
Potential multiple effects of Shenyao
In fact, previous studies have shown that metformin may play a role in human cognitive function, such as repairing brain damage and reversing cognitive impairment. Of course, metformin is considered a miracle drug because it does more than that. Up to now, metformin has been found to have more than 20 effects, such as weight loss, anti-aging and so on.
Metformin plays a role in reducing blood glucose mainly by inhibiting the production of glucose in the liver. For a long time, metformin has been the first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and it is also one of the most commonly used prescription drugs in the world. Here also have to remind a word, metformin as a hypoglycemic prescription drug, non - indications, do not use without authorization.
1. Weight loss
Metformin is a kind of hypoglycemic drug that can reduce weight. It can increase insulin sensitivity and reduce fat synthesis. For many type 2 sugar friends, weight loss itself is conducive to stable blood glucose control.
A study by the US diabetes prevention program (DPP) team showed that patients treated with metformin lost an average of 3.1 kg over a 7-8-year period in a non blinded study.
2. Anti aging effect
Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the clinical trial of "using metformin to fight aging". Foreign scientists may regard metformin as an anti-aging candidate drug because it can increase the amount of oxygen molecules released into cells. In principle, it seems to increase the body's strength and prolong its life span.
3. Reverse biological age
The official website of nature, an international science and technology journal, published a big news. A small clinical study in California has shown for the first time that reversing the human epigenetic clock is possible. Over the past year, nine healthy volunteers took a mixture of growth hormone and two diabetes drugs, including metformin. By analyzing the markers on a person's genome, their biological age has fallen by an average of 2.5 years.
4. Anti haze
Some research results show that the team led by professor Scott Budinger of Northwestern University has confirmed in mice that metformin can prevent inflammation caused by haze, prevent immune cells from releasing a dangerous molecule into the blood, inhibit the formation of arterial thrombosis, and thus reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
5. Help quit smoking
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania found that long-term nicotine use activates the AMPK signaling pathway, which is inhibited during nicotine withdrawal. Therefore, they concluded that if the AMPK signaling pathway was activated with drugs, the withdrawal reaction might be alleviated.
Metformin is an AMPK agonist. When the researchers gave metformin to mice that had a nicotine withdrawal response, they found that it alleviated the withdrawal reaction in mice. Their research shows that metformin can be used to help quit smoking.
6. Anti inflammatory
Some preclinical and clinical studies have shown that metformin can not only improve chronic inflammation by improving metabolic parameters such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia leading to atherosclerosis, but also has direct anti-inflammatory effect.
Studies have shown that metformin can inhibit inflammatory response, mainly through amp activated protein kinase (AMPK) - dependent or independent inhibition of nuclear transcription factor B (NFB).
7. Can promote hair growth, treatment of hair loss
Huang Jing, a Chinese scientist at UCLA, has found that metformin, rapamycin and other drugs can stimulate the hair follicles of mice in resting period to enter the growth stage and promote hair growth. Relevant research has been published in the famous academic journal Cell report.
In addition, scientists have observed that metformin is associated with reduced hair loss in Chinese and Indian patients with PCOS.
In addition, different studies have shown that metformin also has new findings in some diseases that affect women's health.
8. Reduce the risk of miscarriage and premature delivery in specific pregnant women
Metformin may reduce the risk of miscarriage and premature birth in certain pregnant women, according to a study in the Lancet journal.
According to reports, from the Norwegian University of science and Technology (NTNU), the St.Olavs A nearly 20-year study by hospital scientists found that taking metformin at the end of the third trimester of pregnancy may reduce the risk of late miscarriage and premature delivery.
9. Improvement of polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovarian dysfunction and polycystic ovary morphology. Its pathogenesis is not clear, and patients often have different degrees of hyperinsulinemia. Studies have shown that metformin can reduce insulin resistance, restore ovulation function and improve hyperandrogenemia.
10. Combination therapy may be used to treat triple negative breast cancer
A team led by Dr. Marsha rich Rosner of the University of Chicago found that metformin combined with another old drug, heme, could target triple negative breast cancer, which is a serious threat to women's health.
And there is evidence that this treatment strategy may be effective for lung cancer, kidney cancer, uterine cancer, prostate cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. Relevant research was published in the top journal Nature.
11. Cardiovascular protection
Metformin has cardiovascular protective effect and is the only hypoglycemic drug recommended by diabetes guidelines with clear evidence of cardiovascular benefits. Studies have shown that long-term metformin treatment is significantly associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and those with cardiovascular disease.
12. Improve intestinal flora
Some studies have shown that metformin can restore the proportion of intestinal flora and make it change to the direction of health. It can provide favorable living environment for intestinal beneficial bacteria, thus reducing blood sugar and positively regulating immune system.
13. Potential for some autism treatment
Recently, researchers at McGill University found that metformin can treat some forms of autism with brittle X syndrome, and the innovative study is published in the Journal naturemedicine, the nature subjournal. At present, autism is one of many medical conditions scientists believe can be treated with metformin.
14. Reverse pulmonary fibrosis
Researchers at the University of Alabama, Birmingham, found that in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients and in mice with bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis, the AMPK activity of fibrosis tissue decreased, and myofibroblasts in the tissues that resisted apoptosis increased.
The use of metformin to activate AMPK in myofibroblasts can make these cells re sensitive to apoptosis. In mice, metformin can accelerate the ablation of the fibrosis tissue. This study suggests that metformin or other AMPK agonists can be used to reverse the already produced fibrosis.
15. Reverse cognitive impairment
Researchers at the University of Texas, Dallas, have built a mouse model that mimics pain related cognitive impairment. They used the first mock exam to test the efficacy of various drugs.
The results showed that the treatment of metformin with 200 mg / kg weight for 7 days could completely reverse the cognitive impairment caused by pain.
But gabapentine, which treats neuralgia and epilepsy, has no such effect. This means metformin can be used in the old medicine and can treat cognitive impairment in patients with neuralgia.
16. Inhibit tumor growth
Recently, according to the singularity network, European Cancer Research Institute scholars found that metformin and fasting can work together to inhibit the growth of mouse tumors.
Further studies have shown that metformin and fasting inhibit tumor growth through pp2a-gsk3 β -mcl-1 pathway, and the study is published in cancer cell.
17. It can prevent macular degeneration
Dr Yu-Yen Chen from Taichung Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan, China, has recently found that the incidence rate of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is significantly lower in metformin patients with type 2 diabetes. This shows that metformin has protective effects on AMD while controlling diabetes.
18. Or it can reduce adverse effects of glucocorticoids
Recently, Lancet diabetes and endocrinology published a study that showed that metformin was used in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases in phase 2 clinical trials, which could improve metabolic health and reduce the serious side effects of glucocorticoid therapy.
It is suggested that metformin may play a role through AMPK, a key metabolic protein, and the mechanism of action is contrary to that of glucocorticoids, which has the potential to reverse the side effects of the large amount of glucocorticoids.
19. It is expected to treat multiple sclerosis
Previously, Robin J.M. Franklin of Cambridge University and his disciple Peter Van The team led by wijngaarden, who published a paper in the top journal Cell stem cells, said they found a special type of aging neural stem cells, which, after metformin treatment, can restore response to differentiation promoting signals, reproduce the vitality of young state and further promote the regeneration of nerve myelin sheath.
20. It is expected to improve the risk of renal failure and renal death
According to the new perspective of medicine of YaoMing Kant's content team, the 10000 person study shows that metformin may improve the risk of renal failure and kidney disease death.
A journal of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), diabetes care Care) showed that metformin use in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) was associated with a reduced risk of death and end-stage kidney disease (ESRD), and did not increase the risk of lactic acidosis in over 10000 patients with type 2 diabetes.
Although there are so many exciting discoveries about metformin, the drug is toxic. Don't buy it yourself. Use it under the guidance of a doctor.
21. It can protect the stomach and reduce the risk of gastric cancer
Recently, the official website of cell stem cell, a sub Journal of the world's top scientific journal Cell, updated the latest research on metformin: metformin can regulate the metabolism of gastric stem cells and promote them to differentiate into gastric acid producing gastric parietal cells.
Studies have shown that AMPK metabolic pathway promotes stem cells to produce acid secreting parietal cells. Metformin can slow down the proliferation of progenitor cells by activating AMPK and KLF4, and induce parietal cell maturation by activating AMPK and pgc1a, which provides a potential implication for why metformin increases acid secretion and reduces the risk of gastric cancer.
In addition, a study in 2018 showed that metformin use reduced the risk of gastric cancer in H. pylori eradicated diabetic patients by 51% in a sustained and dose-response manner.
22. Take it before operation to reduce the mortality of patients
A recent study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association - surgery found another benefit of metformin, a classic hypoglycemic drug, in addition to controlling blood sugar: taking metformin before surgery may be related to the reduced mortality rate and readmission risk of diabetic patients.
23. Prolong the survival time of patients with advanced colorectal cancer carrying KRAS mutation
According to, recently, the team of Chinese scientists, Gao Guoquan of Zhongshan Medical College of Sun Yat sen University, published important research results in the famous journal PNAS.
They analyzed treatment data from thousands of patients with advanced colorectal cancer and found that among patients with advanced colorectal cancer carrying the KRAS mutation, the overall survival time and the median progression free survival (MPFs) of patients taking metformin for hypoglycemic therapy were 37.8 months longer and 8.1 months longer than those taking other antidiabetic drugs.
24. Cancer and stroke prevention trends
According to new medical perspective, the 80th scientific meeting of the American Diabetes Association (2020ada annual meeting) released the latest data of the diabetes prevention program outcome study (dppos) - metformin has continuously reduced the risk of diabetes for 22 years, showing the trend of preventing cancer and stroke.
25. Repair brain damage
In the journal Nature Medicine, researchers from the Institute of Medical Sciences of the University of Toronto and the Toronto children's Hospital published the experimental results: compared with placebo, metformin significantly improved the working memory and statement memory function of children with brain tumor who had received brain radiotherapy, and repaired the white matter damage.
The findings suggest that metformin is expected to be used in the treatment of irreversible neurodegenerative related diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.

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